One of the main challenges for human geneticists in the ‘post-genome’ era is to understand the genetic architecture of gene regulation and how differences in gene regulation affect complex phenotypes, including human diseases. While many groups are studying gene regulatory mechanisms in model organisms, we reasoned that, although more challenging, the study of gene regulation in primates may carry rewards that are immediately applicable to humans. By collecting valuable samples, developing and adapting new technologies, and combining expertise in evolutionary biology, comparative genetics, and genomics, our lab has made key contributions to the study of gene regulation in humans. Recently we have also started to work with human and non-human primate induced pluripotent stem cells.